1. Long call
In this strategy, the trader buys a call — referred to as “ going farseeing ” a name — and expects the stock price to exceed the hit price by termination. The top on this deal is uncapped and traders can earn many times their initial investment if the stock soars. Example: Stock X is trading for $ 20 per plowshare, and a call with a strike price of $ 20 and exhalation in four months is trading at $ 1. The condense costs $ 100, or one contract * $ 1 * 100 shares represented per condense. here ’ s the profit on the long bid at exhalation : Reward/risk: In this exemplar, the trader breaks even at $ 21 per share, or the hit price plus the $ 1 premium paid. Above $ 20, the option increases in measure by $ 100 for every dollar the stock increases. The option expires worthless when the stock is at the hit price and below. The top on a long call is theoretically outright. If the stock continues to rise before termination, the visit can keep climbing higher, besides. For this reason, long calls are one of the most popular ways to wager on a rising stock price. The downside on a hanker call is a total loss of your investment, $ 100 in this exercise. If the stock finishes below the strike price, the bid will expire despicable and you ’ ll be left with nothing. When to use it: A long call is a good choice when you expect the stock to rise significantly before the choice ’ mho termination. If the stock rises only a fiddling above the strike price, the option may still be in the money, but may not even return the premium paid, leaving you with a net loss .
2. Covered call
A cover call involves selling a call option ( “ going short ” ) but with a spin. here the trader sells a call but besides buys the stock underlying the option, 100 shares for each call sold. Owning the stock turns a potentially hazardous trade — the short cry — into a relatively safe trade wind that can generate income. Traders expect the stock price to be below the strike price at termination. If the livestock finishes above the strike price, the owner must sell the stock to the call buyer at the hit price. Example: Stock X is trading for $ 20 per parcel, and a call with a strike price of $ 20 and exhalation in four months is trading at $ 1. The abridge pays a premium of $ 100, or one condense * $ 1 * 100 shares represented per shrink. The trader buys 100 shares of stock for $ 2,000 and sells one call to receive $ 100. here ’ s the net income on the cover cry scheme : Reward/risk: In this exemplar, the trader breaks even at $ 19 per partake, or the fall price minus the $ 1 premium received. Below $ 19, the trader would lose money, as the stock would lose money, more than offsetting the $ 1 premium. At precisely $ 20, the trader would keep the full premium and hang onto the stock, excessively. Above $ 20, the derive is capped at $ 100. While the short call loses $ 100 for every dollar increase above $ 20, it ’ s wholly offset by the stock ’ second acquire, leaving the trader with the initial $ 100 bounty received as the total net income. The top on the cover call is limited to the bounty received, careless of how high the banal price rises. You can ’ t make any more than that, but you can lose a set more. Any gain that you otherwise would have made with the neckcloth raise is wholly offset by the short call. The downside is a complete loss of the sprout investment, assuming the stock goes to zero, offset by the premium received. The cover predict leaves you open to a meaning loss, if the stock falls. For case, in our example if the stock fell to zero the sum passing would be $ 1,900. When to use it: A cover call can be a good scheme to generate income if you already own the stock and don ’ thymine expect the broth to rise significantly in the near future. So the scheme can transform your already-existing holdings into a informant of cash. The cover call is popular with older investors who need the income, and it can be useful in tax-advantaged accounts where you might otherwise pay taxes on the bounty and capital gains if the livestock is called. here ’ s more on the cover call, including its advantages and disadvantages .
3. Long put
In this scheme, the trader buys a invest — referred to as “ going long ” a put option — and expects the livestock price to be below the strike price by termination. The top on this trade can be many multiples of the initial investment if the stock falls importantly. Example: Stock X is trading for $ 20 per share, and a put with a hit price of $ 20 and passing in four months is trading at $ 1. The contract costs $ 100, or one contract * $ 1 * 100 shares represented per condense. here ’ s the profit on the long frame at exhalation :
Reward/risk: In this case, the put breaks flush when the stock closes at choice exhalation at $ 19 per partake, or the strike price minus the $ 1 premium paid. Below $ 19 the put increases in value $ 100 for every dollar descent in the stock. Above $ 20, the put expires despicable and the trader loses the entire premium of $ 100. The top on a long arrange is about a commodity as on a long predict, because the addition can be multiples of the option premium paid. however, a malcolm stock can never go below zero, capping the top, whereas the long call has theoretically outright top. Long puts are another bare and popular way to wager on the refuse of a stock, and they can be safer than shorting a stock. The downside on a long put is capped at the premium paid, $ 100 here. If the stock closes above the hit price at termination of the option, the arrange expires worthless and you ’ ll lose your investment. When to use it: A long frame is a good choice when you expect the sprout to fall significantly before the option expires. If the stock falls only slenderly below the strike monetary value, the option will be in the money, but may not return the premium paid, handing you a final passing .
4. Short put
This strategy is the flipside of the long put, but hera the trader sells a put — referred to as “ going short ” a put — and expects the stock monetary value to be above the strike price by exhalation. In exchange for selling a invest, the trader receives a cash premium, which is the most a short place can earn. If the stock closes below the hit monetary value at choice termination, the trader must buy it at the strike price. Example: Stock X is trading for $ 20 per share, and a put with a strike price of $ 20 and termination in four months is trading at $ 1. The shrink pays a premium of $ 100, or one contract * $ 1 * 100 shares represented per sign. here ’ s the profit on the light invest at passing : Reward/risk: In this exercise, the light place breaks even at $ 19, or the strike price less the agio received. Below $ 19, the short invest costs the trader $ 100 for every dollar refuse in price, while above $ 20 the place seller earns the full $ 100 premium. Between $ 19 and $ 20, the place seller would earn some but not all of the premium. The top on the short circuit invest is never more than the premium received, $ 100 hera. Like the short-circuit call or covered call option, the utmost revert on a unretentive put is what the seller receives upfront. The downside of a short arrange is the entire value of the underlying stock minus the premium received, and that would happen if the stock went to zero. In this example, the trader would have to buy $ 2,000 of the stock ( 100 shares * $ 20 mint price ), but this would be offset by the $ 100 agio received, for a entire loss of $ 1,900. When to use it: A short place is an appropriate scheme when you expect the stock to close at the strike price or above at termination of the choice. The stock needs to be only at or above the strike price for the option to expire worthless, letting you keep the whole premium received. Your broker will want to make certain you have adequate equity in your score to buy the stock, if it ’ second put to you. many traders will hold adequate cash in their history to purchase the standard, if the put finishes in the money. however, it ’ s possible to close out the options position before exhalation and take the net loss without having to buy the stock directly .
5. Married put
This scheme is like the long put option with a twist. The trader owns the underlying store and besides buys a arrange. This is a hedge trade wind, in which the trader expects the stock to rise but wants “ indemnity ” in the event that the stock falls. If the stock does fall, the retentive put offsets the refuse. Example: Stock X is trading for $ 20 per share, and a frame with a hit price of $ 20 and termination in four months is trading at $ 1. The contract costs $ 100, or one shrink * $ 1 * 100 shares represented per contract. The trader buys 100 shares of lineage for $ 2,000 and buys one put for $ 100. hera ’ s the profit on the married frame scheme : Reward/risk: In this case, the marry invest breaks even at $ 21, or the rap monetary value plus the price of the $ 1 premium. Below $ 20, the long put offsets the decline in the malcolm stock dollar for dollar. Above $ 21, the total profit increases $ 100 for every dollar increase in the neckcloth, though the frame expires worthless and the trader loses the full amount of the premium paid, $ 100 here. The maximal top of the married put option is theoretically uncapped, a long as the banal continues rising, minus the price of the put. The marry arrange is a hedge position, and so the bounty is the cost of insuring the standard and giving it the opportunity to rise with limited downside. The downside of the married put option is the cost of the premium paid. As the prize of the broth position falls, the place increases in value, covering the decline dollar for dollar. Because of this hedge, the trader lone loses the price of the option rather than the bigger malcolm stock personnel casualty. When to use it: A married put can be a good choice when you expect a malcolm stock ’ randomness price to rise significantly before the choice ’ s termination, but you think it may have a casual to fall significantly, besides. The marry put allows you to hold the stock and enjoy the potential top if it rises, but placid be covered from significant loss if the stock falls. For exercise, a trader might be awaiting news, such as earnings, that may drive the stock astir or down, and wants to be covered .
How much money do you need to trade options?
If you ’ re looking to trade options, the good news is that it much doesn ’ t take a lot of money to get started. As in these examples, you could buy a low-cost choice and make many times your money. however, it ’ south very easy to lose your money while “ swinging for the fences. ”
If you ’ re looking to get started, you could start trade options with fair a few hundred dollars. however, if you make a wrong bet, you could lose your whole investment in weeks or months. A safe scheme is to become a long-run buy-and-hold investor and grow your wealth over time .
While options are normally associated with high risk, traders can turn to respective basic strategies that have limited risk. And so even risk-averse traders can use options to enhance their overall returns. however, it ’ randomness constantly crucial to understand the downside to any investing sol that you know what you could possibly lose and whether it ’ s worth the potential reach .
column Disclaimer : All investors are advised to conduct their own mugwump research into investment strategies before making an investment decisiveness. In summation, investors are advised that past investment product performance is no guarantee of future price admiration .