3. The Abstract – Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper – Research Guides at University of Southern California

I.  Types of Abstracts
To begin, you need to determine which type of abstraction you should include with your paper. There are four general types .
Critical Abstract
A critical abstract provides, in addition to describing independent findings and information, a sagacity or comment about the analyze ’ randomness validity, dependability, or completeness. The research worker evaluates the paper and often compares it with early works on the lapp subject. critical abstracts are broadly 400-500 words in distance due to the extra interpretative comment. These types of abstracts are used infrequently .
Descriptive Abstract
A descriptive abstract indicates the type of information found in the solve. It makes no judgments about the employment, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate cardinal words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and setting of the research. basically, the descriptive abstraction lone describes the study being summarized. Some researchers consider it an outline of the work, preferably than a drumhead. descriptive abstracts are normally very short, 100 words or less.

Informative Abstract
The majority of abstracts are enlightening. While they still do not critique or evaluate a exercise, they do more than describe it. A commodity instructive abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself. That is, the research worker presents and explains all the main arguments and the significant results and attest in the composition. An informative abstraction includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract [ function, methods, oscilloscope ] but it besides includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the writer. The length varies according to discipline, but an instructive abstract is normally no more than 300 words in length.

Highlight Abstract
A highlight pilfer is specifically written to attract the reader ’ s attention to the study. No pretense is made of there being either a balance or complete movie of the newspaper and, in fact, incomplete and leading remarks may be used to spark the reader ’ mho sake. In that a highlight abstract can not stand independent of its consociate article, it is not a on-key abstract and, therefore, rarely used in academic write .
II.  Writing Style
Use the active voice when possible, but note that much of your abstract may require passive conviction constructions. Regardless, write your abstract using concise, but complete, sentences. Get to the detail quickly and always use the past tense because you are reporting on a learn that has been completed .
Formatting
Abstracts should be formatted as a one paragraph in a blocking format and with no paragraph indentations. In most cases, the abstract foliate immediately follows the title page. Do not number the page. Rules set away in writing manual change but, in general, you should center the news “ abstract ” at the top of the foliate with double spacing between the bearing and the abstract. The final sentences of an abstract concisely summarize your study ’ second conclusions, implications, or applications to practice and, if allow, can be followed by a statement about the want for extra research revealed from the findings .
Composing Your Abstract
Although it is the first department of your paper, the abstract should be written stopping point since it will summarize the contents of your integral paper. A good strategy to begin composing your abstract is to take wholly sentences or key phrases from each section of the paper and put them in a sequence that summarizes the contents. then revise or add connect phrases or words to make the narrative stream intelligibly and smoothly. bill that statistical findings should be reported parenthetically [ i, written in parentheses ] .
Before handing in your concluding paper, assay to make certain that the information in the pilfer wholly agrees with what you have written in the paper. Think of the abstract as a consecutive set of arrant sentences describing the most all-important information using the fewest necessary words.

The abstract SHOULD NOT contain:

  • Lengthy background or contextual information,

  • Redundant phrases, unnecessary adverbs and adjectives, and repetitive information;

  • Acronyms or abbreviations,

  • References to other literature [say something like, “current research shows that…” or “studies have indicated…”],

  • Using ellipticals [i.e., ending with “…”] or incomplete sentences,

  • Jargon or terms that may be confusing to the reader,

  • Citations to other works, and

  • Any sort of image, illustration, figure, or table, or references to them.

Abstract. Writing Center. University of Kansas ; Abstract. The structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College ; Abstracts. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina ; Borko, Harold and Seymour Chatman. “ Criteria for acceptable Abstracts : A Survey of Abstracters ‘ Instructions. ” american Documentation 14 ( April 1963 ) : 149-160 ; Abstracts. The Writer ’ s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin, Madison ; Hartley, James and Lucy Betts. “ common Weaknesses in Traditional Abstracts in hte Social Sciences. ” Journal of the american Society for Information Science and Technology 60 ( October 2009 ) : 2010-2018 ; Procter, Margaret. The Abstract. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto ; Riordan, Laura. “ Mastering the Art of Abstracts. ” The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 115 ( January 2015 ) : 41-47 ; Writing Report Abstracts. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University ; Writing Abstracts. Writing tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University ; Koltay, Tibor. Abstracts and Abstracting : A Genre and Set of Skills for the twenty-first Century. Oxford, UK : 2010 ; Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper. The Writing Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison .

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