Kidney stones – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic


If your doctor of the church suspects that you have a kidney stone, you may have diagnostic tests and procedures, such as :

  • Blood testing. Blood tests may reveal too much calcium or uric acid in your blood. Blood test results help monitor the health of your kidneys and may lead your doctor to check for other medical conditions.
  • Urine testing. The 24-hour urine collection test may show that you’re excreting too many stone-forming minerals or too few stone-preventing substances. For this test, your doctor may request that you perform two urine collections over two consecutive days.
  • Imaging. Imaging tests may show kidney stones in your urinary tract. High-speed or dual department of energy computerized imaging ( CT ) may reveal evening bantam stones. simple abdominal X-rays are used less frequently because this kind of imaging test can miss modest kidney stones .
    Ultrasound, a noninvasive test that is promptly and easy to perform, is another imaging choice to diagnose kidney stones.

  • Analysis of passed stones. You may be asked to urinate through a strainer to catch stones that you pass. Lab analysis will reveal the makeup of your kidney stones. Your doctor uses this information to determine what’s causing your kidney stones and to form a plan to prevent more kidney stones.

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treatment for kidney stones varies, depending on the type of rock and the lawsuit .

Small stones with minimal symptoms

Most minor kidney stones wo n’t require invasive discussion. You may be able to pass a little rock by :

  • Drinking water. Drinking as much as 2 to 3 quarts (1.8 to 3.6 liters) a day will keep your urine dilute and may prevent stones from forming. Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, drink enough fluid — ideally mostly water — to produce clear or nearly clear urine.
  • Pain relievers. Passing a small stone can cause some discomfort. To relieve mild pain, your doctor may recommend pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen sodium (Aleve).
  • Medical therapy. Your doctor may give you a medication to help pass your kidney stone. This type of medication, known as an alpha blocker, relaxes the muscles in your ureter, helping you pass the kidney stone more quickly and with less pain. Examples of alpha blockers include tamsulosin (Flomax) and the drug combination dutasteride and tamsulosin (Jalyn).

Large stones and those that cause symptoms

Parathyroid glands

Parathyroid glands

Parathyroid glands

The parathyroid gland glands lie behind the thyroid. They produce parathyroid gland hormone, which plays a role in regulating the soundbox ‘s blood degree of calcium and phosphorus .
Kidney stones that are besides large to pass on their own or cause shed blood, kidney price or ongoing urinary tract infections may require more-extensive treatment. Procedures may include :

  • Using sound waves to break up stones. For certain kidney stones — depending on size and localization — your doctor of the church may recommend a procedure called extracorporeal daze wave lithotripsy ( ESWL ) .
    ESWL uses sound waves to create strong vibrations ( shock waves ) that break the stones into bantam pieces that can be passed in your urine. The operation lasts approximately 45 to 60 minutes and can cause moderate pain, so you may be under sedation or light anesthesia to make you comfortable .
    ESWL can cause blood in the urine, bruising on the back or abdomen, bleeding around the kidney and early adjacent organs, and discomfort as the gem fragments pass through the urinary nerve pathway .
  • Surgery to remove very large stones in the kidney. A routine called transdermal nephrolithotomy ( nef-row-lih-THOT-uh-me ) involves surgically removing a kidney gem using small telescopes and instruments inserted through a modest incision in your back .
    You will receive general anesthesia during the surgery and be in the hospital for one to two days while you recover. Your sophisticate may recommend this operating room if ESWL is abortive .
  • Using a scope to remove stones. To remove a smaller stone in your ureter or kidney, your sophisticate may pass a thin lighted tube ( ureteroscope ) equipped with a television camera through your urethra and bladder to your ureter .
    once the pit is located, special tools can snare the stone or break it into pieces that will pass in your urine. Your doctor may then place a little tube ( stent ) in the ureter to relieve well and promote bring around. You may need general or local anesthesia during this procedure .
  • Parathyroid gland surgery. Some calcium phosphate stones are caused by hyperactive parathyroid gland glands, which are located on the four corners of your thyroid gland gland, merely below your Adam ‘s apple. When these glands produce excessively much parathyroid gland hormone ( hyperparathyroidism ), your calcium levels can become excessively high and kidney stones may form as a leave .
    hyperparathyroidism sometimes occurs when a small, benign tumor forms in one of your parathyroid gland glands or you develop another condition that leads these glands to produce more parathyroid gland hormone. Removing the growth from the gland stops the geological formation of kidney stones. Or your doctor of the church may recommend treatment of the condition that ‘s causing your parathyroid gland gland to overproduce the hormone .


prevention of kidney stones may include a combination of life style changes and medications .

Lifestyle changes

You may reduce your risk of kidney stones if you :

  • Drink water throughout the day. For people with a history of kidney stones, doctors normally recommend drinking enough fluids to pass about 2.1 quarts ( 2 liters ) of urine a day. Your doctor may ask that you measure your urine output to make certain that you ‘re drinking enough water .
    If you live in a hot, dry climate or you exercise frequently, you may need to drink even more water to produce adequate urine. If your urine is idle and clear, you ‘re probably drink enough water .
  • Eat fewer oxalate-rich foods. If you tend to form calcium oxalate stones, your doctor may recommend restricting foods rich in oxalates. These include rhubarb, beets, okra, spinach, Swiss chard, sweet potatoes, nuts, tea, chocolate, black pepper and soy products.
  • Choose a diet low in salt and animal protein. Reduce the amount of salt you eat and choose nonanimal protein sources, such as legumes. Consider using a salt substitute, such as Mrs. Dash.
  • Continue eating calcium-rich foods, but use caution with calcium supplements. Calcium in food does n’t have an effect on your risk of kidney stones. Continue eating calcium-rich foods unless your repair advises differently .
    Ask your doctor before taking calcium supplements, as these have been linked to increased risk of kidney stones. You may reduce the risk by taking supplements with meals. Diets abject in calcium can increase kidney stone formation in some people .
    Ask your doctor for a referral to a dietician who can help you develop an consume design that reduces your risk of kidney stones.


Medications can control the sum of minerals and salts in the urine and may be helpful in people who form certain kinds of stones. The type of medication your doctor order will depend on the kind of kidney stones you have. here are some examples :

  • Calcium stones. To help prevent calcium stones from forming, your doctor may prescribe a thiazide diuretic or a phosphate-containing preparation.
  • Uric acid stones. Your doctor may prescribe allopurinol (Zyloprim, Aloprim) to reduce uric acid levels in your blood and urine and a medicine to keep your urine alkaline. In some cases, allopurinol and an alkalizing agent may dissolve the uric acid stones.
  • Struvite stones. To prevent struvite stones, your doctor may recommend strategies to keep your urine free of bacteria that cause infection, including drinking fluids to maintain good urine flow and frequent voiding. In rare cases long-term use of antibiotics in small or intermittent doses may help achieve this goal. For instance, your doctor may recommend an antibiotic before and for a while after surgery to treat your kidney stones.
  • Cystine stones. Along with suggesting a diet lower in salt and protein, your doctor may recommend that you drink more fluids so that you produce a lot more urine,. If that alone doesn’t help, your doctor may also prescribe a medication that increases the solubility of cystine in your urine.

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Preparing for your appointment

minor kidney stones that do n’t block your kidney or cause other problems can be treated by your syndicate repair. But if you have a boastfully kidney stone and experience severe trouble or kidney problems, your repair may refer you to a sophisticate who treats problems in the urinary tract ( urologist or nephrologist ) .

What you can do

To prepare for your appointment :

  • Ask if there’s anything you need to do before your appointment, such as limit your diet.
  • Write down your symptoms, including any that seem unrelated to kidney stones.
  • Keep track of how much you drink and urinate during a 24-hour period.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or other supplements that you take.
  • Take a family member or friend along, if possible, to help you remember what you discuss with your doctor.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

For kidney stones, some basic questions include :

  • Do I have a kidney stone?
  • What size is the kidney stone?
  • Where is the kidney stone located?
  • What type of kidney stone do I have?
  • Will I need medication to treat my condition?
  • Will I need surgery or another procedure?
  • What’s the chance that I’ll develop another kidney stone?
  • How can I prevent kidney stones in the future?
  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
  • Do I need to follow any restrictions?
  • Should I see a specialist? If so, does insurance typically cover the services of a specialist?
  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you’re prescribing?
  • Do you have any educational material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?
  • Do I need a follow-up visit?

Besides the questions you prepare in advance, do n’t hesitate to ask any other questions during your appointee as they occur to you .

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor of the church is probable to ask you a act of questions, such as :

  • When did your symptoms begin?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?
  • Has anyone else in your family had kidney stones?

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