How to Quote | Citing Quotes in APA, MLA & Chicago

Quoting means copying a passing of person else ’ second words and crediting the generator. To quote a beginning, you must ensure :

  • The quoted text is enclosed in quotation marks or formatted as a block quote
  • The original author is correctly cited
  • The text is identical to the original

The accurate format of a quotation depends on its length and on which quotation stylus you are using. Quoting and citing correctly is essential to avoid plagiarism .
How to Quote

How to cite a quote in APA, MLA and Chicago

Every time you quote, you must cite the source correctly. This looks slightly different depending on the citation style you ’ rhenium using. Three of the most common styles are APA, MLA, and Chicago .

Citing a quote in APA Style

To cite a calculate quote in APA, you must include the writer ’ south last name, the year, and a page number, all separated by comma. If the quotation mark appears on a individual page, use “ p. ” ; if it spans a page range, use “ pp. ”
An APA in-text citation can be parenthetic or narrative. In a parenthetical citation, you place all the information in parentheses after the quote. In a narrative citation, you name the author in your sentence ( followed by the year ), and place the page number after the quote .
punctuation marks such as periods and commas are placed after the citation, not within the quotation marks .
Examples: APA in-text citation

  • Evolution is a gradual process that “can act only by very short and slow steps” ( Darwin, 1859, p. 510 ).
  • Darwin ( 1859 ) explains that evolution “can act only by very short and slow steps” ( p. 510 ).

Citing a quote in MLA style

An MLA in-text quotation includes only the author ’ s last name and a page number. As in APA, it can be parenthetic or narrative, and a period ( or early punctuation chump ) appears after the citation .
Examples: MLA in-text citation

  • Evolution is a gradual process that “can act only by very short and slow steps” ( Darwin 510 ).
  • darwin explains that evolution “can act only by very short and slow steps” ( 510 ).

Citing a quote in Chicago style

Chicago vogue uses Chicago footnotes to cite sources. A note, indicated by a superscript number placed directly after the quotation mark, specifies the writer, championship, and page number—or sometimes full information .
Unlike with parenthetic citations, in this style, the menstruation or early punctuation grade should appear within the quotation marks, followed by the footnote number .
Example: Chicago footnote citationEvolution is a gradual process that “can act only by very short and slow steps.”1

1. Darwin, The Origin of the Species, 510.

Complete guidebook to Chicago expressive style

Introducing quotes

Make sure you integrate quotes properly into your text by introducing them in your own words, showing the subscriber why you ’ re including the quotation mark and providing any context necessity to understand it. Don’t  confront quotations as stand-alone sentences .
Example: Quote not properly introduced“A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
There are three chief strategies you can use to introduce quotes in a grammatically adjust manner :
The following examples use APA Style citations, but these strategies can be used in all styles .

Introductory sentence

Introduce the quotation with a wide sentence ending in a colon. Don ’ metric ton function a colon if the text before the quotation mark international relations and security network ’ t a full conviction .
If you name the generator in your conviction, you may use present-tense verbs, such as “ states, ” “ argues, ” “ explains, ” “ writes, ” or “ reports, ” to describe the content of the quotation mark .

  • In Denmark, a recent poll shows that: “A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
  • In Denmark, a recent poll shows that support for the EU has grown since the Brexit vote: “A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
  • Levring (2018) reports that support for the EU has grown since the Brexit vote: “A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” (p. 3).

Introductory signal phrase

You can besides use a signal phrase that mentions the generator or source, but doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate class a full moon conviction. In this case, you follow the phrase with a comma alternatively of a colon .

  • According to a recent poll, “A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
  • As Levring (2018) explains, “A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” (p. 3).

Integrated into your own sentence

To quote a phrase that doesn ’ metric ton form a full sentence, you can besides integrate it as part of your prison term, without any extra punctuation .

  • A recent poll suggests that EU membership “would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” in a referendum (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
  • Levring (2018) reports that EU membership “would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” in a referendum (p. 3).

Quotes within quotes

When you quote text that itself contains another quotation, this is called a nest quotation or a quote within a quote. It may occur, for model, when quoting dialogue from a novel.

To distinguish this quotation mark from the surrounding quote, you enclose it in individual ( rather of doubly ) quotation marks ( even if this involves changing the punctuation from the original textbook ). Make certain to close both sets of quotation marks at the appropriate moments .
note that if you only quote the nest quotation itself, and not the surrounding text, you can good use double over quotation marks .
Examples: Punctuation mistakes with nested quotations

  • Carraway introduces his narrative by quoting his father: “ “Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone, ” he told me, “just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had ”” (Fitzgerald 1).
  • Carraway introduces his narrative by quoting his father: “‘Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone,’ he told me, ‘just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had ” (Fitzgerald 1).

Examples: Correctly formatted nested quotations

  • Carraway introduces his narrative by quoting his father: “‘Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone,’ he told me, ‘just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had’” (Fitzgerald 1).
  • Carraway begins by quoting his father’s invocation to “remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had” (Fitzgerald 1).

Note:  When the quoted text in the source comes from another reference, it ’ south best to just find that master source in orderliness to quote it directly. If you can ’ thyroxine find the original source, you can rather cite it indirectly .

Shortening or altering a quote

much, incorporating a quote smoothly into your text requires you to make some changes to the original text. It ’ sulfur very well to do this, ampere long as you clearly mark the changes you ’ ve made to the quote .

Shortening a quote

If some parts of a passage are excess or irrelevant, you can shorten the quote by removing words, phrases, or sentences and replacing them with an ellipsis ( … ). Put a space before and after the ellipsis .
Be careful that removing the words doesn ’ thymine change the intend. The ellipsis indicates that some textbook has been removed, but the shorten quote should hush accurately represent the generator ’ mho point .
Example: Shortening a quoteAs Darwin (1859) puts it, “natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, favourable variations … it can act only by very short and slow steps” (p. 510).

Altering a quote

You can add or replace words in a quote when necessity. This might be because the original textbook doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate fit grammatically with your sentence ( for example, it ’ south in a different tense ), or because extra information is needed to clarify the quotation mark ’ sulfur think of .
Use brackets to distinguish words that you have added from words that were salute in the original text .
Example: Adding words to a quoteSmith (2020) states that “those [participants] with the highest scores were generally older than the average” (p. 33).
The latin terminus “ sic ” is used to indicate a ( factual or grammatical ) mistake in a quotation. It shows the reviewer that the error is from the quoted material, not a misprint of your own .
Example: Marking a mistake with “sic“Sill (2022) states that “several problem [sic] can be addressed using this technique” (p. 14).
In some cases, it can be utilitarian to italicize part of a quotation to add stress, showing the lector that this is the key character to pay attention to. Use the give voice “ stress added ” to show that the italics were not region of the original textbook .
Example: Adding emphasis with italicsBecause natural selection “acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, favourable variations [emphasis added], it can produce no great or sudden modification; it can act only by very short and slow steps” (Darwin, 1859, p. 510).
You normally don ’ t need to use brackets to indicate minor changes to punctuation or capitalization made to ensure the quote fits the style of your text .

Block quotes

If you quote more than a few lines from a source, you must format it as a blocking quotation mark. alternatively of using quotation marks, you set the quote on a new note and indent it so that it forms a separate block of text .
Block quotes are cited just like regular quotes, except that if the quote ends with a period, the citation appears after the period .
Example: MLA block quoteTolkien favors long sentences and detailed descriptions:
To the end of his days Bilbo could never remember how he found himself outside, without a hat, a walking-stick or any money, or anything that he normally took when he went out ; leaving his irregular breakfast half-finished and quite unwashed-up, pushing his keys into Gandalf ’ s hands, and running vitamin a fast as his furred feet could carry him down the lane, past the big Mill, across The Water, and then on for a mile or more. ( 16 )

When should I use quotes?

Avoid relying besides heavily on quotes in academic write. To refer to ideas from a generator, it ’ south much best to paraphrase, which means putting the passage in your own words. This helps you desegregate data smoothly and keeps your own voice dominant .
however, there are some situations in which quotes are more appropriate .

When focusing on language

If you want to comment on how the author uses speech ( for example, in literary analysis ), it ’ sulfur necessary to quote therefore that the lector can see the exact passage you are referring to.

Example: Using quotes to analyze languageYou are writing a paper about the novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald. You will have to quote frequently from the novels in order to analyze their language and style.

When giving evidence

To convince the lector of your argument, interpretation or position on a topic, it ’ sulfur often helpful to include quotes that subscribe your point. Quotes from chief sources ( for exercise, consultation transcripts or historic documents ) are specially credible as evidence .
Example: Using quotes as evidenceYou are working on a paper about the causes of the French Revolution, and you have studied documents and letters written at the time. You can quote from these sources as evidence in support of your argument.

When presenting an author’s position or definition

When you ’ re referring to secondary coil sources such as scholarly books and diary articles, try to put others ’ ideas in your own words when possible .
But if a enactment does a great job at expressing, explaining, or defining something, and it would be very unmanageable to paraphrase without changing the mean or losing the weakening the theme ’ s impingement, it ’ mho worth quoting directly .
Example: Quoting to present a theoryYour interpretation of survey data is supported by a well-known theory on your topic. You find a sentence that perfectly sums up the theory, so you quote it directly before elaborating on your understanding of the theory.

Frequently asked questions about quoting sources

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