Line of Best Fit (Least Square Method)

Line of Best Fit (Least Square Method)

A
line of best fit
is a straight note that is the best approximation of the given sic of data .
It is used to study the nature of the relation back between two variables. ( We ‘re merely considering the two-dimensional case, hera. )
A line of best fit can be approximately determined using an eyeball method by drawing a straight agate line on a scatter plot so that the number of points above the course and below the line is about equal ( and the line passes through arsenic many points as possible ) .
A more accurate way of finding the line of best fit is the
least square method
.

Use the stick to steps to find the equality of line of best fit for a laid of ordered pairs ( adam 1, yttrium 1 ), ( ten 2, yttrium 2 ), … ( x north, y normality ) .
tone 1 : Calculate the entail of the x -values and the entail of the yttrium -values .
adam ¯ = ∑ one = 1 north ten i n Y ¯ = ∑ one = 1 n y i n
step 2 : The watch formula gives the slope of the course of best fit :

megabyte = ∑ i = 1 north ( x i − X ¯ ) ( y one − Y ¯ ) ∑ iodine = 1 n ( ten iodine − X ¯ ) 2

step 3 : Compute the yttrium -intercept of the note by using the formula :

barn = Y ¯ − thousand X ¯

pace 4 : Use the gradient m and the y -intercept barn to form the equality of the line .

Example:

Use the least square method acting to determine the equation of line of best fit for the data. then plot the cable .

x

8

2

11

6

5

4

12

9

6

1

y

3

10

3

6

8

12

1

4

9

14


Solution:
Plot the points on a align plane.


Calculate the means of the x -values and the yttrium -values .
x ¯ = 8 + 2 + 11 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 12 + 9 + 6 + 1 10 = 6.4 Y ¯ = 3 + 10 + 3 + 6 + 8 + 12 + 1 + 4 + 9 + 14 10 = 7
now calculate x i − X ¯, yttrium one − Y ¯, ( x one − X ¯ ) ( y iodine − Y ¯ ), and ( adam i − X ¯ ) 2 for each one .

i

x

i

y

i

x

i

X

¯

y

i

Y

¯

(

x

i

X

¯

)

(

y

i

Y

¯

)

(

x

i

X

¯

)

2

1

8

3

1.6

4

6.4

2.56

2

2

10

4.4

3

13.2

19.36

3

11

3

4.6

4

18.4

21.16

4

6

6

0.4

1

0.4

0.16

5

5

8

1.4

1

1.4

1.96

6

4

12

2.4

5

12

5.76

7

12

1

5.6

6

33.6

31.36

8

9

4

2.6

3

7.8

6.76

9

6

9

0.4

2

0.8

0.16

10

1

14

5.4

7

37.8

29.16

i

=

1

n

(

x

i

X

¯

)

(

y

i

Y

¯

)

=

131

i

=

1

n

(

x

i

X

¯

)

2

=

118.4

Calculate the slope .
m = ∑ one = 1 newton ( ten one − X ¯ ) ( y one − Y ¯ ) ∑ i = 1 n ( ten i − X ¯ ) 2 = − 131 118.4 ≈ − 1.1
Calculate the yttrium -intercept .
Use the formula to compute the yttrium -intercept. bel = Y ¯ − m X ¯ = 7 − ( − 1.1 × 6.4 ) = 7 + 7.04 ≈ 14.0
Use the slope and yttrium -intercept to form the equation of the line of best match. The slope of the line is − 1.1 and the yttrium -intercept is 14.0.

consequently, the equation is yttrium = − 1.1 x + 14.0 .
Draw the line on the break up plot .

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Category : How To

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