MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)
MLA ( Modern Language Association ) dash is most normally used to write papers and adduce sources within the big arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook ( 9th erectile dysfunction. ), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
The MLA Handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. basically, a writer will need to take notice of primary coil elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. frankincense, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any source regardless of whether it ’ randomness included in this list .
however, this guide will highlight a few concerns when citing digital sources in MLA dash .
Best Practices for Managing Online Sources
Because on-line information can change or disappear, it is constantly a good idea to keep personal copies of crucial electronic information whenever possible. Downloading or tied printing key documents ensures you have a stable backup. You can besides use the Bookmark function in your network browser in order to build an easy-to-access reference point for all of your stick out ‘s sources ( though this will not help you if the information is changed or deleted ) .
It is besides knowing to keep a record of when you beginning consult with each on-line beginning. MLA uses the phrase, “ Accessed ” to denote which go steady you accessed the web page when available or necessity. It is not required to do so, but it is encouraged ( specially when there is no copyright date listed on a web site ) .
Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA
Include a URL or web address to help readers locate your sources. Because web addresses are not static ( i.e., they change often ) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web ( for example, on multiple databases ), MLA encourages the use of citing containers such as Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix in order to easily access and control sources. however, MLA only requires the world wide web. address, sol eliminate all hypertext transfer protocol : // when citing URLs .
many scholarly diary articles found in databases include a DOI ( digital object identifier ). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI number alternatively of the URL .
on-line newspapers and magazines sometimes include a “ permalink, ” which is a shorten, stable version of a URL. Look for a “ share ” or “ cite this ” button to see if a generator includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that alternatively of a URL .
Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources
If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in invest of the p. or pp. abbreviation. Par. would be used for a single paragraph, while pars. would be used for a straddle of two or more paragraphs .
Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)
hera are some common features you should try to find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. not every web page will provide all of the comply information. however, collect as much of the trace information as possible :
- Author and/or editor names (if available); last names first.
- “Article name in quotation marks.”
- Title of the website, project, or book in italics.
- Any version numbers available, including editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (no.).
- Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
- Take note of any page numbers (p. or pp.) or paragraph numbers (par. or pars.).
- DOI (if available, precede it with “https://doi.org/”), otherwise a URL (without the https://) or permalink.
- Date you accessed the material (Date Accessed). While not required, saving this information it is highly recommended, especially when dealing with pages that change frequently or do not have a visible copyright date.
Use the follow format :
author. “ Title. ” title of container ( self contained if book ), other contributors ( translators or editors ), Version ( edition ), Number ( vol. and/or no. ), Publisher, Publication Date, Location ( pages, paragraph and/or URL, DOI or permalink ). 2nd container ’ mho title, other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication go steady, Location, Date of Access ( if applicable ) .
Citing an Entire Web Site
When citing an stallion web site, follow the lapp format as listed above, but include a compiler name if no unmarried writer is available .
writer, or compiler mention ( if available ). name of Site. Version number ( if available ), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the locate ( patronize or publisher ), date of resource universe ( if available ), DOI ( preferred ), otherwise include a URL or permalink. Date of access ( if applicable ) .
editor program, writer, or compiler name ( if available ). name of Site. Version count, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site ( sponsor or publisher ), date of resource creation ( if available ), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access ( if applicable ) .
The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008 .
Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006 .
Course or Department Websites
Give the teacher name. then list the title of the class ( or the school catalogue designation for the class ) in italics. Give allow department and school names vitamin a well, following the naturally claim .
Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England. Purdue U, Aug. 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Accessed 31 May 2007 .
english Department. Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/. Accessed 31 May 2015 .
A Page on a Web Site
For an individual page on a Web site, list the writer or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. normally, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the like as the web site name, only list it once .
Lundman, Susan. “ How to Make vegetarian Chili. ” eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015 .
“ Athlete ‘s Foot – subject Overview. ” WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview .
Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the record in motion is an e-book by putting the term “ e-book ” in the “ translation ” slot of the MLA template ( i.e., after the generator, the style of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors ) .
silva, Paul J. How to Write a set : A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. E-book, American Psychological Association, 2007 .
If the e-book is formatted for a specific reader device or service, you can indicate this by treating this data the like way you would treat a physical book ‘s edition number. Often, this will mean replacing “ e-book ” with “ [ App/Service ] erectile dysfunction. ”
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince, translated by W. K. Marriott, Kindle ed., Library of Alexandria, 2018 .
Note: The MLA considers the term “ e-book ” to refer to publications formatted specifically for reading with an e-book lector device ( for example, a Kindle ) or a represent web application. These e-books will not have URLs or DOIs. If you are citing book contented from an ordinary web page with a URL, use the “ A page on a Web Site ” format above.
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An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)
Provide the artist ‘s name, the work of art italicized, the date of universe, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entrance with the list of the Website in italics, and the date of access .
Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado, www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006 .
Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006 .
If the work cited is available on the web only, then provide the identify of the artist, the entitle of the work, and then follow the citation format for a web site. If the work is posted via a username, function that username for the writer .
Adams, Clifton R. “ People Relax Beside a Swimming Pool at a Country Estate Near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928. ” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/ .
An Article in a Web Magazine
Provide the author list, article diagnose in quotation marks, style of the vane cartridge holder in italics, publisher list, publication date, URL, and the date of entree .
Bernstein, Mark. “ 10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. ” A List Apart : For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009 .
An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal
For all on-line scholarly journals, provide the writer ( s ) diagnose ( south ), the name of the article in quotation marks, the entitle of the publication in italics, all bulk and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a DOI if available, differently provide a URL or permalink to help readers locate the source .
Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal
MLA requires a foliate scope for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears entirely in an on-line format ( i.e. there is no represent mark publication ) that does not make manipulation of foliate numbers, indicate the URL or early location information .
Dolby, Nadine. “ Research in Youth Culture and Policy : current Conditions and Future Directions. ” Social Work and Society : The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009 .
Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print
Cite articles in on-line scholarly journals that besides appear in print as you would a scholarly daybook in mark, including the page range of the article. Provide the URL and the go steady of access .
Wheelis, Mark. “ Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. ” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009 .
An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)
Cite on-line databases ( e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect ) and other subscription services as containers. frankincense, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL rather. Provide the date of access if you wish .
Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “ Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates. ” Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, hypertext transfer protocol : //doi.org/10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009 .
Langhamer, Claire. “ Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England. ” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, hypertext transfer protocol : //doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009 .
E-mail (including E-mail Interviews)
Give the writer of the message, followed by the subject production line in quotation marks. state to whom the message was sent with the give voice, “ Received by ” and the recipient ’ randomness name. Include the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization .
Kunka, Andrew. “ Re : Modernist Literature. ” Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000 .
Neyhart, David. “ Re : Online Tutoring. ” Received by Joe Barbato, 1 Dec. 2016 .
A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting
Cite network postings as you would a standard web entrance. Provide the generator of the influence, the title of the mailing in quotation marks, the web locate name in italics, the publisher, and the stake date. Follow with the date of access. Include shield name calling as author names when generator diagnose is not known. If both names are known, place the generator ’ randomness name in brackets .
writer or compiler diagnose ( if available ). “ Posting Title. ” Name of Site, Version number ( if available ), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site ( sponsor or publisher ), URL. Date of entree .
Salmar1515 [ Sal Hernandez ]. “ Re : Best strategy : Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms ? ” BoardGameGeek, 29 Sept. 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/343929/best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Accessed 5 Apr. 2009 .
Begin with the exploiter ‘s Twitter handle in place of the author ’ sulfur list. Next, position the pinch in its entirety in quotations, inserting a menstruation after the pinch within the quotations. Include the date and time of stake, using the reviewer ‘s meter zone ; separate the date and meter with a comma and end with a time period. Include the date accessed if you deem necessary .
@ tombrokaw. “ SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign. ” Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 ante meridiem, twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320 .
@ PurdueWLab. “ spring break is around the corner, and all our locations will be open following week. ” Twitter, 5 Mar. 2012, 12:58 post meridiem, twitter.com/PurdueWLab/status/176728308736737282 .
A YouTube Video
Video and sound recording sources need to be documented using the lapp basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA dash. Include as much descriptive data as necessity to help readers understand the type and nature of the generator you are citing. If the writer ’ randomness diagnose is the lapp as the uploader, only cite the generator once. If the generator is different from the uploader, cite the writer ’ second name before the entitle .
McGonigal, Jane. “ Gaming and Productivity. ” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch ? v=mkdzy9bWW3E.
“ 8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test. ” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch ? v=WBlpjSEtELs .
A Comment on a Website or Article
List the username as the writer. Use the idiom, Comment on, before the deed. Use quotation marks around the article entitle. Name the publisher, date, time ( listed on near the comment ), and the URL .
not Omniscient Enough. gossip on “ Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘ Shut Up ’ After Argument Over Pasta. ” ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 post meridiem, abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story ? id=39704050 .