Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources // Purdue Writing Lab

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Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual ( i.e., APA 7 ), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
Please note: the watch contains a list of the most normally cited non-print sources. For a complete list of how to cite non-print sources, please refer to the seventh version of the APA Publication Manual.


Interviews fall into three categories : published interviews, personal interviews, and research player interviews. however, only published interviews require a courtly citation in your reference book list .
A published interview is found in places like a radio show, newspaper, or magazine. To cite a published interview, adhere to the format for that especial address type ( i.e., if the interview is on a podcast, cite the podcast ). For more information on citing sources where an interview might appear, visit the Articles in Periodicals page or the electronic Sources page .
A personal interview is considered personal communication and does not require a formal citation in your mention number. See below for more information .
A inquiry participant interview is an interview conducted as part of your research stick out. You might address this in the body of your paper, saying something like, “ As part of my study, I interviewed fifty participants about their engagement with intramural sports. ” however, you do not need to formally cite this in your reference list .

Presentation at Conference or Symposium

Whether you ’ re citing a keynote address, a composition presentation as separate of a symposium, or a poster presentation, follow the guidelines below. While some presentations are published after they ’ re given, others do not have a written part. If the presentation is published, follow the guidelines for citation as laid out in the Other Print Sources page. Be sure to include a URL if the issue is available on-line .

Presentation Without an Online Source

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. ( Year, Month Day ). style of contribution [ Description of contribution ]. Title of Symposium/Conference, Location .
Matson, E. ( 2018, Nov. 5 ). Drones and autonomous vehicles : The latest newfangled engineering to come with potential threat [ Conference seance ]. Dawn or Doom 2018 Conference, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States .

Presentation With Online Source

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. ( Year, Month Day ). deed of contribution [ Description of contribution ]. Title of Symposium/Conference, Location. url
Bailey, C. ( 2019, April 5 ). How to get your brain to focus [ Address ]. TEDxManchester, Manchester, U.K. hypertext transfer protocol : // ? v=Hu4Yvq-g7_Y

Individual Presentation in a Larger Symposium/Panel

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. ( Year, Month Day ). championship of contribution. In E. E. Chairperson & F. F. Chairperson ( Chairs ), Title of larger symposium/panel [ Description of symposium/panel ] Title of symposium/conference, Location. URL if available
fabian, J. J. ( 2020, May 14 ). UX in free educational content. In J. S. Doe ( Chair ), The encase of the Purdue OWL : approachability and on-line content growth [ Panel presentation ] Computers and Writing 2020, Greenville, NC, United States .

Unpublished Works

You may find yourself needing to cite a dissertation or a manuscript that has not yet been formally published. To correctly classify the bring, describe the work and put that description in square brackets. Be certain the date you list is the year the function was completed, whether it ’ s the final interpretation or not .

Unpublished Manuscript

Barkley, S., Chen, M., & McDonald, P. ( 2018 ). The effects of sodium on children ’ s health [ Unpublished manuscript ]. Department of Biology, University of Cincinnati .

Manuscript in Preparation

Glass, A. ( 2019 ). How avocado changed America [ Manuscript in readiness ]. Department of Sociology, Michigan State University .

Manuscript Submitted for Publication

Jones, R. ( 2019 ). Walt Whitman and the american Dream [ Manuscript submitted for publication ]. Department of English, University of Mississippi .

Personal Communication

Any communication that can not be immediately retrieved by a lector is considered “ personal communication. ” Emails, earphone conversations, text messages, and sociable media messages are all examples of personal communication. You do not include personal communication in your reference list ; alternatively, parenthetically cite the communicator ‘s name, the phrase “ personal communication, ” and the date of the communication in your independent text only .
( E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2019 ).

If you reference personal communication in a footnote, as is common practice in certain fields and publications, you can document it in the same way .
1. P. Smith ( personal communication, November 3, 2019 ) besides claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA vogue .
Although you do not need to cite personal communication, do try to locate a informant when potential. For model, if your acquaintance told you about a research study he heard on a podcast, and you want to include that information in your test, it is best to cite the original podcast, rather than the communication with your friend .

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