In-Text Citations: Author/Authors
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual ( i.e., APA 7 ), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found hera .
Though the APA ‘s author-date organization for citations is fairly square, writer categories can vary importantly from the standard “ one author, one beginning ” shape. There are besides extra rules for citing authors of indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.
A Work by One Author
The APA manual recommends the use of the author-date citation structure for in-text citation references. This social organization requires that any in-text quotation ( i.e., within the body of the text ) be accompanied by a correspond reference book list entry. In the in-text quotation provide the surname of the generator but do not include suffixes such as “ Jr. ” .
As Ahmed ( 2016 ) mentions …
( Ahmed, 2016 )
Citing Non-Standard Author Categories
A Work by Two Authors
diagnose both authors in the sign phrase or in parentheses each prison term you cite the work. Use the son “ and ” between the authors ‘ names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses .
research by Wegener and Petty ( 1994 ) supports …
( Wegener & Petty, 1994 )
A Work by Three or More Authors
list entirely the first writer ’ south diagnose followed by “ et al. ” in every citation, tied the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources .
( Kernis et al., 1993 )
Kernis et aluminum. ( 1993 ) suggest …
In et al., et should not be followed by a time period. alone “ aluminum ” should be followed by a menstruation .
If you ’ rhenium citing multiple works with alike groups of authors, and the abbreviated “ et alabama ” citation form of each reference would be the lapp, you ’ ll need to avoid ambiguity by writing out more names. If you cited works with these authors :
Jones, Smith, Liu, Huang, and Kim ( 2020 )
Jones, Smith, Ruiz, Wang, and Stanton ( 2020 )
They would be cited in-text as follows to avoid ambiguity :
( Jones, Smith, Liu, et al., 2020 )
( Jones, Smith, Ruiz, et al., 2020 )
Since et alabama. is plural, it should constantly be a substitute for more than one name. In the case that et alabama. would stand in for merely one writer, write the author ’ s name alternatively .
If the work does not have an generator, cite the source by its style in the signal idiom or use the first discussion or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized ; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in citation marks. APA style calls for capitalizing significant words in titles when they are written in the text ( but not when they are written in reference lists ) .
A similar learn was done of students learning to format research papers ( “ Using Citations, ” 2001 ) .
Note : In the rare case that “ anonymous ” is used for the generator, treat it as the author ‘s identify ( Anonymous, 2001 ). In the address list, use the name Anonymous as the writer .
Organization as an Author
If the author is an administration or a government agency, mention the organization in the sign phrase or in the parenthetic citation the beginning time you cite the generator, just as you would an individual person .
According to the American Psychological Association ( 2000 ), …
If the constitution has a well-known abbreviation, you may include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the reference is cited and then use only the abbreviation in subsequently citations. however, if you cite shape from multiple organizations whose abbreviations are the same, do not use abbreviations ( to avoid ambiguity ) .
beginning citation : ( Mothers Against Drunk Driving [ MADD ], 2000 )
second base citation : ( MADD, 2000 )
Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses
When your parenthetic citation includes two or more works, club them the same means they appear in the citation tilt ( namely, alphabetically ), separated by a semi-colon.
( Berndt, 2002 ; Harlow, 1983 )
If you cite multiple works by the like generator in the same parenthetical expression quotation, give the writer ’ south appoint only once and follow with dates. No date citations go first base, then years, then in-press citations .
( Smith, n.d., 1995, 2002, in weigh )
Authors with the Same Last Name
To prevent confusion, use beginning initials with the last names .
( E. Johnson, 2001 ; L. Johnson, 1998 )
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year
If you have two sources by the lapp writer in the like class, use lower-case letters ( a, boron, deoxycytidine monophosphate ) with the year to arrange the entries in the character list. Use the lower-case letters with the class in the in-text quotation .
research by Berndt ( 1981a ) revealed strong correlations. however, a parallel study ( Berndt, 1981b ) resulted in inconclusive findings .
Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords
When citing an introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the allow generator and year deoxyadenosine monophosphate usual .
( Funk & Kolln, 1992 )
For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other one-on-one communication, cite the communicator ‘s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the go steady of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the citation tilt .
( E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001 ) .
If using a footnote to reference personal communication, manage citations the same way .
1. P. Smith besides claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA stylus ( personal communication, November 3, 2002 ) .
Traditional Knowledge of Indigenous Peoples
When citing information you learned from a conversation with an autochthonal person who was not your inquiry participant, use a variation of the personal communication quotation above. Include the person ’ s full mention, nation or Indigenous group, localization, and any other relevant details before the “ personal communication, date ” partially of the citation .
( Caroline Jennings, Cherokee Nation, lives in Tulsa, Oklahoma, personal communication, October 2019 )
Citing Indirect Sources
broadly, writers should endeavor to read primary coil sources ( master sources ) and cite those quite than secondary coil sources ( works that report on original sources ). sometimes, however, this is impossible. If you use a source that was cited in another reference, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your address list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. If you know the year of the original reference, include it in the quotation .
Johnson argued that … ( as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102 ) .
( Johnson, 1985, as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102 ) .
If potential, cite an electronic text file the like as any other document by using the author-date style .
Kenneth ( 2000 ) explained …
Unknown Author and Unknown Date
If no author or date is given, use the deed in your bespeak phrase or the first news or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation “ n.d. ” ( for “ no date ” ) .
Another report of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutor ( “ Tutoring and APA, ” n.d. ) .
Sources Without Page Numbers
When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Use the steer or part mention, an abbreviated steer or section identify, a paragraph number ( paratrooper. 1 ), or a combination of these .
According to Smith ( 1997 ), … ( Mind Over Matter section, para. 6 ) .
Note: Never use the page numbers of webpages you print out ; different computers print webpages with different pagination. Do not use Kindle location numbers ; rather, use the page act ( available in many Kindle books ) or the method above.
The APA Publication Manual describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and capacity creators. however, you may occasionally encounter a source or author class that the manual does not describe, making the best way to proceed unclear .
In these cases, it ‘s typically acceptable to apply the general principles of APA citation to the raw kind of source in a way that ‘s consistent and reasonable. A good direction to do this is to merely use the standard APA directions for a type of source that resembles the informant you want to cite. For exercise, a sensible way to cite a virtual reality program would be to mimic the APA ‘s guidelines for computer software .
You may besides want to investigate whether a third-party administration has provided directions for how to cite this kind of reservoir .